Female pelvic anatomy :

1. Round ligament
2. Uterus
3. Uterine cavity
4. Intestinal surface of Uterus
5. Versical surface(toward bladder)
6. Fundus of uterus
7. Body of uterus
8. Palmate folds of cervical canal
9. Cervical canal
10. Posterior lip
11. Cervical os (external)
12. Isthmus of uterus
13. Supravaginal portion of cervix
14. Vaginal portion of cervix
15. Anterior lip
16. Cervix
Endometriosis is very common, painful, chronic disease affecting woman during reproductive age, caused by excess of female hormone estrogen.
It occurs when tissue lining the uterus (endometrium) develops somewhere outside the uterus. For example on the ovaries, behind the uterus, on the bowels, bladder, fallopian tubes.
Although very rarely it can also develop in the skin, lungs, brain, small intestines, spine and in the other organs positioned in pelvic cavity area.

Naturally endometrium inside the uterus sheds each month during the menstrual cycle, but endometriosis endometrium have nowhere to go causing bleeding, degenerated blood and tissue shedding, inflammation and pain. It can very commonly result in infertility.

Science doesn't know exact reason why women develop this disease. Although every woman can be affected, more chances for developing of endometriosis have women who usually have heavy periods, began getting period early, have long periods (more then 7 days), have a short monthly cycle. Also endometriosis can be genetic related.

The major symptom is severe pelvic pain that can occur before and during menstrual period and during sex. Other symptoms may include infertility, pain during urination and bowel movements (in the period time), fatigue, constipation, nausea, diarrhea. Along with endometriosis women usually have allergies, yeast infections and sensitivities on particular chemicals.

The best type of treatment for endometriosis is surgery (sometimes it may be necessary). There are three types of surgery treatment:

- Laparoscopy - removing tissue with intense heat
- Laparothomy - more heavier way of removing tissue with much bigger cut.
- Hysterectomy - removing the uterus. Also ovaries and fallopian tubes can be removed due to disuse.

Besides surgery endometriosis can also be treated with pain medications and hormone treatments. Also there are treatments that can improve fertility in women with endometriosis.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Although there is no effective cure for endometriosis, scientists believe that regular exercise as well as avoiding alcohol and caffeine can reduce chances of getting this disease.

Pictures from this page were taken from Wikipedia.